A blog to meet demands of Sample Papers, Syllabus, Last Year Papers of Class 12 Physical Education.

Children and Sports

13:52:00 Posted by Saurabh Sahni

Children and Sports

Sport and physical education are fundamental to the early development of children and youth and the skills learned during play, physical education and sport contribute to the holistic development of young people. This post provides information about changes in the body of children due to sports.

Motor Development in Children

Motor development refers to the development of a child’s bones, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate his or her environment. 
Motor development can be divided into two sections: Gross Motor Development and Fine Motor Development:

  1. Gross Motor Development involves the development of the large muscles in the child’s body. These muscles allow us to sit, stand, walk and run, among other activities. Games involving gross motor skills are dodge ball, climbing over, play gym equipment, hopscotch, kick to kick, indoor hockey with rolled newspaper and stocks. eg.: running, jumping, hopping, skipping, ball games, and climbing.
  2. Fine Motor Development involves the small muscles of the body, especially in the hand. needs developed control of muscles to allow for more complicated or complex movements. eg.:handwriting, painting, cutting out images etc.

Factors Affecting Motor Development in Children

Motor Development in children depends on and is affected by the following factors:
  1. Age or Maturity: Motor Development does not take place overnight. It takes place gradually in a phased manner as the age advances. Infancy and preschool years are a period of rapid motor development. It slows down in later years. Later childhood and late adolescence are the periods of consolidation and therefore growth and motor development slow down.
  2. Genetic Influence: Genes or Heredity are the qualities that affect the motor development of an individual. They set limits for the development of motor abilities in future even if environmental factors such as diet, air and exercise etc. are available adequately.
  3. Nutrition:  Nutritious foods help in promoting motor development. Energy from foods is the essential requirement for muscular activity. This nutritious food, not only helps in performing the muscular activity, but also promotes the growth of muscles and development of motor ability.
  4. Environment: Encouragement, love and security of children, help them to take risks to know more about the environment. This effort leads to the better sensory development of children which is the prerequisite of motor development. 
  5. Practice: Practice of activities helps in developing skilled voluntary movements. Children are practising to see what they can do. They have no targets to achieve but are curious. For this reason, they seem to love practice This leads to motor development.
  6. Opportunities: Motor development of children is affected greatly by the opportunities and facilities available to them for play activities in schools, homes and neighbourhood. Play and play related activities are the most important factor that affects motor development in children.
Actually, childhood is the "play age" that lays the foundation for health, fitness and skilful motor development.

Physical and Physiological Advantages of exercise for children

The benefits of regular exercise on children can be listed under 2 heads i.e. Physical and physiological (You can see the difference between physical and physiological here) as given below:

Physical Benefits

  1. The muscles of children increase in size as a result of higher exercise which is reflected in their muscular appearance.
  2. They gain in height due to increase in the length and structure of bones.
  3. Their body weight increases.
  4. The body assumes correct, erect posture.
  5. The texture(appearance) of their skin improves.
  6. Their movements become well-coordinated and skilful.
Physiological Benefits

  1. Muscles of the body and various organs become strong
  2. The storage of nutrients (glycogen) muscles, increases which can be utilised when required.
  3. Body weight increases. 
  4. Bones become well-calcified. 
  5. The stroke volume of the heart increases. 
  6. The capacity to do a physical activity for a longer period before exhaustion increases gradually. 
  7. The capability of utilising oxygen during exhausting exercise increases.
  8. The return of heart rate and blood pressure to normal levels after an activity becomes quick. 
  9. Neuromuscular coordination increases.

Weight Training

Weight training is a superb method to shape the whole body. However, this training method requires the judicious utilisation of weights and carefully selecting weight exercises. In weight training, we use light and medium weights in weight training exercises for the development of strength, agility, flexibility and endurance.

Advantages of weight training

  1. Weight training improves muscular strength. 
  2. It increases muscular tone.
  3. It improves muscular endurance.
  4. Weight training strengthens bones. 
  5. It makes children less prone to injuries. 
  6. It increases the self-confidence of children.
  7. It decreases resting blood pressure.
  8. It increases the level of HDL(high-density lipoprotein) in blood.
  9. It decreases the time of retention of food in intestines, thus reducing the risks of intestinal disease.
  10. The resting heart rate is lowered. 
  11. Improves balance and coordination. 
  12. It improves posture. 
Disadvantages of Weight Training 
  1.  Weight training exercise can lead to injuries of muscles or joints if the exercises are not done properly. 
  2. It can decrease flexibility if flexibility exercises are not done along with such training .
  3. Over a length of time, it may have a bad effect on joints .
  4. Very often there is a need of a partner while doing exercises.

Food Supplements

Children's diet needs special attention as that is the time when the foundation of their future health is laid. As a matter of fact, there should be no need for food supplements for children if their diet is well balanced and sufficient to meet their body needs. But in many cases, the diet the which take may be lacking in their body account of the and type of foodstuffs eaten. Very often the foodstuff eaten are deficient in the required food value.
This may be due to the following reason 
  1.  The vegetables and fruits we eat are transported over long distances and in many cases are kept in cold storages for long and their nutrients.
  2. Our crops, vegetables and fruit plants are sprayed with pesticides and injected with other chemicals for better output. Thus such foodstuff may do more harm than good. 
  3. The preservatives added to some of the sauces, tinned fruit& vegetables and other preserved eatables result in the loss of their nutrients.
  4. Our cooking practices result in the loss of vitamins and nutrients from our foods. 
  5. Eating junk food gives children little or no nutrients.
 Although vitamins, minerals and other food supplements are not a substitute for a healthy, balanced diet but they become a necessity in many cases. 
Food supplements for children can be of advantage or disadvantage depending upon their requirements. Therefore food supplements should not be taken unless prescribed by a doctor because taking food supplements without need may do more harm than good.