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Psychology and Sports

05:59:00 Posted by Saurabh Sahni 1 comment

Psychology and sports physical education class 12

Psychology- The scientific study of human brain and its various functions is known as Psychology.

Psychology and sports are distributed into stress, anxiety, personality, motivation, self-esteem and their various sub-topics.


The pressure or tension arises mentally due to various kinds of circumstances.


Any chemical agent, biological agent, environment condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an individual.Effect of stress depends on the intensity of stressor.

If the intensity of stressor is severe , then it would lead to serious health problems and even death too.Common examples of serious health problems include a headache, allergies, insomnia, backache, cold, fatigue, hypertension, asthma, diabetes, heart ailments and cancer etc. In the situation of stress, body make various changes. Those changes include releasing hormones which are known as adrenaline and cortisone. These hormones increase blood pressure and prepare the body for fight response. Once the person faces stress situation then there are two options one is that hormones are used up completely and another is that the hormones are still mixed in blood. In case hormones are used by the body then the body goes to normal as before stress. When the hormones are left unused in the blood then the body starts giving stress related physical symptoms such as tense muscles, anxiety, dizziness and fast heartbeat. Effects of stress are not always negative , they are positive also . Unachievable tasks can be easily achieved by positive stress.

Managing Stress

  1. Participation in physical activities- Participation in physical activities help to release happiness hormones in the body such as  cortisols, endorphins etc. After releasing of hormones, hormones interact with receptors in the brain and triggers positive feelings which ultimately reduces depression.

  2. Developing hobbies- Developing hobbies such as acting , dance, cooking , calligraphy, embroidery , stand-up comedy etc helps individual to feel confident about himself which releases hormones like cortisols, endorphins etc and ends up reducing depression.

  3. Avoiding company of stressed person- Company of the individual also play an important role in reducing or transferring depression.  Various research shows that the people who are surrounded by  people with negative thoughts have more potential to depress rather than people living with the people with the positive attitude.

  4. Councilling or psychotherapy- Psychotherapy is the therapy of treating mental health conditions. It includes analysing the problem which triggers the stress and working upon it for the better condition  of someone.

  5. Changing working environment- Working environment includes surrounding condition within which employee or person works.If the working environment is favourable to person, then he will enjoy the work hence reducing the effect of depression.

  6. Developing positive mindset- A negative mindset is found to have more potential for stress rather than one with the positive mindset.


Anxiety is the term used for many disorders that make someone nervous, worry, fear, alarm, unease etc. People often face anxiety while doing some activities such as  tests,interview, drama etc. Anxiety becomes a problem when it disturbs regular functions of life such as sleep, hunger etc.

Managing Anxiety

  1. Meditation

  2. Confidence

  3. Sleep

  4. Addictions

  5. Mentality

  6. Physical Workout

  7. Identifying Source


Personality is the set of various characteristics like physical, mental,intellectual, social, emotional, etc. These exhibit the inner and outer capabilities of a person.
Dimensions of personality

It comprises of 4 dimensions which are physical, mental, social and emotional.

  1. physical- This dimension comprises of a good physique, proper body weight, proper posture. A good physical outlook creates a positive impression of a person on others.For a person to possess good physique he should take  balanced diet, do exercises regularly .

  2. mental- This dimension of personality comprises of mental and intellectual strength and abilities. This enables a person to behave and act properly in surroundings and helps him to gather knowledge.

  3. social- It composes of social characteristics like behavioural patterns, customs, rituals, traditions, norms, standards etc. It enables a person to be socially and socialising. Social skills develop in surroundings where a person lives.

  4. emotional- It comprises of proper control over emotions like hate, anger, fear, love etc. If emotions are left uncontrolled then they often create a problem for us.

Role of sports in developing personality

Sports help to develop a personality by developing physical, mental, social and emotional condition  separately.

Physical- Sports compose of a wide range of physical activities which help to develop person's physical fitness up to a great extent. Sports are the great source of reducing obesity.

Mental-Some games like basketball, hockey, football, cricket enables players to make strategies to win. Making strategies, again and again, develops creative thinking, sharpens the mind, develop critical thinking. These changes help to develop individual's mental status.

Social-  Being a social activity sports include in games which further include making teams and groups to play and win. It teaches individuals to deal with people, manners, etiquette etc.

Emotional- Emotions include hate, anger, fear etc. The outburst of such emotions is not considered a good sign of good personality. Games include winning and losing  which make both teams adaptable to emotional outburst.


Motivation is one of the main psychological factors which affects the performance. Motivation means to be inspired to do something. The definition of motivation is to give reason, enthusiasm or interest that cause a specific action or certain behaviour. Motivation is present in every function of life. Simple acts such as eating, drinking are motivated by hunger and thirst respectively.The following definitions may clarify the meaning of motivation more explicitly.
"Any condition that may energise and direct our actions" is called motivation - Robert Crooks in Crooks and Stein

"The drive to strive is" called motivation - Sage

 Types of motivation

There are 2 types of motivation:

  1. Intrinsic motivation- Kind of motivation rising from inside of an individual.When individuals use their good or bad experiences , a dream to achieve something is known as intrinsic motivation.

  2. Extrinsic motivation-Kind of motivation whose source is external . For example punishment, reward etc.


By the way, there are uncountable ways to motivate but here are few tips that will blow your mind:

  • Opposite sex- Presence of opposite always help individual to perform well and impress opposite sex.

  • Spectators- Mood of spectators or audience matters a lot but not the most. If spectators have faith in a player and keep on cheering him/her then it will make a player perform well and score well. Same goes opposite when spectators have no faith in the player.

  • Verbal comments- Verbal comments of various people around player influence the mood of the player. If comments are positive then it will make player confident otherwise it will make player fell bad about his performance.

  • Type of environment-Environment plays a good role in motivating someone. if the environment is positive , then it will motivate the person is and same goes opposite in presence of the negative environment

  • Reward- Sometimes the reward being  rewarded meets the need or requirement of the player.It keeps on motivating him to perform well .


Self-Esteem refers to the self-confidence or self-dignity that a person maintain.Self-Esteem is linked to body image.Body image is how we feel and think our body.If we feel positive then self-esteem will also be high else if we feel negative about  body image then we will feel low .In short, there is a positive relationship between body image and self-esteem.
Body Image

As discussed in last passage body image is how we feel and think our body. In other words, body image is both the mental picture that you have of your body and how you look in the mirror. Body image involves the picture of your body that ou have in your mind, Which may or may not match your body's actual shape, size, height, weight etc.
Types of body image:

Body image can be classified into two types i.e. positive body image and negative body image.

Positive body image- Body image in which person feels positive about his body is known as positive body image.People who feel good about their body , have a positive or healthy body image. Body image is not about physical looks about of anyone, it's all about how a person see his body .For having a healthy body image also means that you see yourself as you really are.You feel comfortable and confident in terms of your body image.

Negative body image

Negative body image is also called unhealthy body image.Negative body image means being unhappy with the way you look. It is usually linked with the desire to change the body shape,size,height or weight etc. This type of body image develops when an individual feels that his body's features do not match with social or media ideals.These individuals are usually dissatisfied with their body image.
Factors influencing self-esteem and body image

There are various factors influencing body image and self-esteem. Some of them are listed below:

  1. Puberty and development-  Development takes place differentially.During puberty phase, body  make various changes which help individuals to survive. Changes such as the growth of pubic hair, development of breast, increase in height, menstruation etc. These changes can be seen directly and can make people feel bad about their body when they compare themselves to others.

  2. Media images- At this age, teenager tends to compare themselves with celebrities.  This often makes them feel bad about themselves and make  negative body image.

  3. Society- Society plays a great role in determining body image of an individual.If the society around teenagers is positive then teenager will also make a positive body image . If society criticises teenagers about their body looks, then teenagers will make a negative body image .

  4. Life experience- As people grow older they face many events during their lifetime some are positive whereas some are negative .uch experiences may influence body image of people.

Improving body image and self-esteem

If you lay stress on the following points you are likely to improve your body image and self-esteem.

  1. Attitude towards yourself- Try to analyse your body image and try to possess positive body image rather than negative body image.

  2. Positive qualities- If you are having low self-esteem and unhealthy body image you can turn yourself toward healthy body image by thinking about skills that you are good at. For this, you must remind yourself about your positive skills .

  3. Plastic surgery- It is optional to get a plastic surgery done . It will help you to gather confidence and develop a healthy body image.

  4. Changing habits- A person should focus on developing habits such as exercising, reading books etc. Such practice will definitely help in improving body image and self-esteem.


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