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Biomechanics and Sports

04:39:00 Posted by Saurabh Sahni 1 comment

biomechanics and sports

Biomechanics


Biomechanics is made from two words i.e." Bio" ( meaning: a living body) and "Mechanics"  (Meaning:Field of physics which deal in the study of bodies in motion).   Application of the principle of mechanics in physical education and sports is called biomechanics.

Projectile and Trajectory/Parabola


A projectile is anybody thrown upwards with an acute angle is known as the projectile .For example, A basketball is thrown towards the basket ,ball thrown by fielder towards baller, throwing a hammer, discuss throw etc. In all these cases objects are considered as the projectile. Trajectory is the path covered by the projectile until it stops.let's understand it better with an image.
Projectile and trajectory meaning with the help of angry birds


Factors Affecting Projectile Trajectory (Object's path)

There are various reasons of the path of the projectile.Different bodies use different paths due to the following reasons:

  1. The angle of Projection

  2. Height of Release

  3. Initial Velocity (or speed)

  4. Gravity (or the weight of the projectile)

  5. Air Resistance

  6. Spin

The angle of projection- The angle of projection affects the distance covered by the projectile. If the angle would be too less or too high then distance covered will be less, so to cover the proper distance the angle of 45°.is recommended.

The height of Release- Height of release refers to the height to which the projectile is released.It is observed that as the height of the release of projectile increases, the distance also increases.

Initial Velocity- The speed at which the projectile is thrown in the air is called as initial velocity.The more the initial velocity will be , the more will be distance covered by the object and vice versa.

Gravity- Gravity is an invisible force that pulls everything towards earth.The more the weight of the projectile , the more the weight the more the gravity acting upon it.

Air Resistance- When any object passes through air, it faces some resistance by air around it.This resists the movement of the projectile through the air.It depends on various determinants such as the surface of the object, design (or shape) of the object, the mass  of projectile and speed of the projectile.

  • The surface of the object- If the surface is smooth , then air resistance would be less and if it's rough then resistance would be more.

  • Design- Design refers to the shape of the object. If the shape is piercing (as that of an aeroplane)  then the air resistance will be less and if it is not piercing but is a made to capture more and more air (like a parachute and a skydiver making an arch position).

  • Mass of the object- Mass is the matter possessed by the body.If the mass of projectile would be small then resistance will be high and vice versa . For example feather and a stone.

  • The speed of the projectile- The more the speed the farther will projectile go.For eg a stone thrown and a bullet fired from a gun.

Spin- The amount and direction of spin acting on a projectile affect the distance travelled by the projectile. Topspin (what is topspin) reduces the distance whereas backspin (what is backspin) increases it.

Angular and Linear movement

Angular movement is produced with angle whereas linear movements are movements in a single direction.
Most human actions are the complex combination of basic forms of motions such as linear motion, angular motion, and general motion.



Linear Motions

Motion along a straight line curve is called linear motion .It can be in straight line or in curved lines.The direction of a moving object will not be changed .There are two types of motions: Rectilinear motion and curvilinear motion.


Rectilinear motion- The movement along the straight line curve is known as rectilinear motion.For example bowling ball etc
Learning rectilinear motion with sports
Rectilinear motion
Curvilinear Motion- The movement along the curved path is known as curvilinear motion.

Curvilinear motion with the help of basketball
Curvilinear Motion

Angular Motion

Motion possessed by anybody moving around an axis is known as angular motion.It is further classified into 2 types i.e. Internal axis and External axis.
Internal Axis- If the axis of the rotating body  lies inside the human body then it is considered as an internal axis.Such as games such as hammer throw etc.

External Axis- If the axis of the rotating body lies outside the human body then it is termed as an external axis. For example giant wheel, moving ceiling fan etc.


Work, Power and Energy


Work-When there is displacement of the body in the direction of force applied then it is said that the work is done.{\displaystyle W=Fs}where w=work,f=force applied,and s=displacement.Components of work done are the force applied on a body and the displacement covered by the body after applying force.

Power - Power can be defined as the rate of doing work or rate of consuming the energy.

P=W/T

Where P=power, Work= work, T= Time

Energy-Energy can be defined as an ability of an individual to do work.It is categorised into two types: Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy.
Kinetic Energy-Energy possessed by a moving body is know as kinetic energy. there is the positive relationship between the movement of the body and kinetic energy.The more the movement the more will be kinetic energy and vice versa.

Potential Energy- Energy possessed by a body at some height is known as potential energy.its main component is the height and weight of the body.







1 comments:

virendr said...

All topices notes is very good