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Training in sports

07:20:00 Posted by Saurabh Sahni 2 comments
training in sports physical education class 12


This chapter focuses on identifying,understanding and developing various types of abilities of the body.It covers a great weight age in the examination.


It is the preparation of the athlete in such a way that he can perform as per the requirements in the competitions.The performance of an athlete in such competitions  depends widely on abilities such as speed,endurance,strength etc which are developed during training sessions.


Strength meaning

Strength is the ability of the body to act against resistance.

Types of Strength

Strength can be classified as follows:

Dynamic Strength

Dynamic strength can be called isotonic strength because it is related to movements.In pullups and pushups, we require dynamic strength.In performing such workout,there is a diminishing tendency in dynamic strength and as a result,muscles refuse to work.At this juncture, a person is not able to do one extra pullup or pushup.

Types of Dynamic strength

Dynamic strength is classified into 3 parts:

  1. Maximum Strength- it is the ability to act against maximum resistance.Maximum strength is not usually used in the majority of sports.It is used in those sports in which very heavy resistance has to be tackled, e.g.,Weightlifting,Shot-put,hammer throw etc.In other sports maximum strength is required for a short period, e.g., cross position in roman rings in gymnastics, starting and accelerating phase in sprinting events, high jump etc.In such sports maximum strength is really very important.

  2. Explosive strength-It is defined as the ability to overcome resistance with high speed .In fact, it is a combination of strength and speed abilities.Explosive strength is generally used in sprint starts , weightlifting,shot put etc.In above-mentioned sports, this force is applied jus like an explosion, that's why it is called explosive power or explosive strength.

  3. StrengthEndurance-As the name speaks, strength endurance is a mix of strength and endurance abilities.If strength means to overcome resistance and endurance it is the ability to resist fatigue, then strength endurance is the ability of a person to act against the condition of fatigue.It can be a form of static strength or dynamic strength depending on factor whether the movement is static or dynamic.Static Endurance ability is generally used in long distance races,swimming,road cycling and pole vault.So it can allude that strength endurance is used in most of the sports.

Static Strength

Static Strength is also called isometric strength.It is the ability of muscles to act against resistance.Static Strength can be measured by a dynamometer.This type of strength is not seen directly.Static strength id not appllied in sports directly but in weight lifting it is applied in phases.

Strength Training

Strength Training is the term of improving the strength.It is classified into following 4 types:

  1. Isometric Exercises

  2. Isotonic Exercises

  3. Isokinetic Exercises

Isometric Exercises

Isometric exercise or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the muscle length do not change during contraction. Isometrics are done in  stable positions, rather than being dynamic through a range of motion.The main component of isometric exercises  is time , not weight.It involves trying to move a fixed object.It is used commonly for rehabilitation.(Tip: Iso-Metric-cannot be moved,even by single meter)

Isotonic Excercise

Isotonic exercises are those exercises in which movement can be seen directly.Isotonic Excercise tone up the muscles. Muscles become flexible, and length also increases. These exercises have great value in the field of sports and are considered best for  strength development. For e.g. running and jumping on the spot, weight training exercises, exercise with medicine ball etc.Isotonic Exercises can be performed with or without apparatus.

Isokinetic exercises

Isokinetic exercises are performed on specially designed machines. These exercises involve a special type of muscle contraction, which is usually not applicable in sports and games except rowing and swim. Isokinetic exercises ,movement occurs at the same speed. In isotonic  exercises muscle applies maximal force over a particular angle of its range of movements whereas in isokinetic exercises contraction of muscles applies maximal force throughout the complete range of movement.According to the individuals capacity, the speed of contraction can be adjusted accordingly. For eg. Lifting, pulling, gymnastics, diving etc.


Endurance is the ability of the person to do sports movement with the desired quality and speed under the condition o fatigue.It involves a large number of muscles.In all sports , directly or indirectly endurance is used.It is usually measured by a number of repetitions.For eg. the number of situps a person can complete in one minute is often used to measure endurance of stomach muscles.

Types of endurance:

A.  According to the nature of the activity.
Basic Endurance

General Endurance

Specific Endurance

B. According to the duration of activity
Speed Endurance

Short-term endurance

Middle-term endurance

Long-term endurance

Types of endurance according to the nature of activity

According to the nature of activity, the endurance is classified into following types:

  1. Basic Endurance- Also known as aerobic endurance,because basic endurance depends mainly on aerobic endurance.In fact, basic endurance is the ability to perform movements in which large number of body muscles are involved and the activity is performed at slow speed or pace for a long duration.(such as jogging,walking, swimming etc.) Basic endurance forms the basis of all types of endurance.

  2. General Endurance- General endurance means doing sports activity in  the condition of fatigue.General endurance is not specific to any sports.It is developed through general exercises. The better the general endurance , better the performance in sports.

  3. Specific Endurance- Specific endurance is the ability to resist the fatigue caused by a particular sports activity.As the nature of fatigue is different from sports to sports, the specific endurance is different from sports to sports.For example, the specific endurance for a wrestler is to combat effectively in three rounds or six minutes, whereas it is 4 rounds for a boxer.

Types of endurance according to the basis of duration of activity.

According to the duration of activity, the endurance is classified into following types:

  1. Speed Endurance- Ability to resist fatigue in activities that last up to 45 seconds.For example.400m sprint.

  2. Short-term endurance- Ability to resist fatigue in activities that start from 45 seconds and last up to 2minutes.For example.800m race.

  3. Medium-term endurance- Ability to resist fatigue in activities that range from 2minutes to 11minutes.For example. 1500 m race.

  4. Long-term endurance-  Ability to resist fatigue in activities that last more than 11 minutes.for example. 5000m cross country, 10,000m race, and marathon requires such type of endurance.

Improving/developing Endurance

The following methods are used to develop endurance:

  1. Interval Training Method

  2. ContinousTraining Method

  3. Fartlek Training Method

Interval Training Method

Interval Training Method is the best method for improving endurance.In this method, exercise is done at high intensity and with intervals of incomplete recovery.

Let's check an example to understand better

  • Firstly exercise should be done with high speed until heartbeat comes to 180 beats per minute.

  • Rest should be taken until heartbeat comes to 120 or 130 beats per minute.

  • Training load should be controlled by checking the  heart rate.

Advantages of interval training method

  • It takes less time to do more workout.

  • Highly beneficial for the respiratory and circulatory system.

  • Progress can be measured easily.

  • Peak performance can be achieved in short duration.

  • Any fault can be cleared easily.

Disadvantages of interval training method

  1. Increased chances of injuries.

  2. Attracts heart diseases.

  3. The top performance cannot remain active till the competition.

Continuous Method

Continuous training is one of the best methods for improving endurance.In this method of training, an exercise is performed for a long duration without any break.In this method intensity remains low because this exercise is done for a long time without a break.In this method intensity remains low because exercise is done for a long time.For Example Cross-Country race, etc. In this method, the rate of heartbeat remains between 140-160 beats per minute.The total duration of exercise should not be less than 30 minutes.

Advantages of continuous training method

  1.  It increases glycogen in muscles and liver.

  2.  It increases the number and size of mitochondria.

  3.  It also increases the efficiency of heart and lungs.

  4.  It improves willpower and makes the individual well-determined under the condition of fatigue.

  5. For better results intensity can be increased.

  6. It makes the individual self-disciplined and confident.

Fartlek Training Method

Fartlek training method is used for developing endurance . This trail method lays emphasis on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. In this method pace or speed is not preplanned so it is left up to the individual. He can change according to the surroundings(hills, rivers forests, muddy roads metal roads and grounds) or himself.Self-Discipline plays a vital role in Fartlek training method.  The rate of heart beat ranges between 40 to 180 per minute. The duration of training depends on  the experience of the athlete but most probably it lasts a minimum of 45 minutes, It can vary from  aerobic walking to anaerobic sprinting. This training method is usually linked with running but can comprise any type of exercise. For performing this training proper warm up should be done at the beginning and appropriate cooling down at training to improve performance and to reduce the chances of injury. An example of this training is given below.

  1. Warm up. Jogging or slow running for 5 to 10 minutes.

  2. Steady, hard speed for 1.5 to 2.5 km.

  3. Recovery, Rapid walking for at least 5 minutes.

  4. Start of speed work:Easy running between sprints of about 50 to 60 meters repeated start of speed work Easy running between sprints of until a little tired.

  5. Easy running with three or four quick and then.

  6. Full steps now speed uphill for 175 to 200 metres.

  7. The fast pace of 1 minute.

The above-mentioned routine is repeated until the total time prescribed on the training schedule has elapsed.


  1.  it keeps the heart rate up allowing an athlete to get good cardio-vascular endurance.

  2.  It is good for aerobic and anaerobic fitness. That is why it makes an athlete a better runner and a better long distance runner.

  3.  Due to the sprinting intervals, it makes the body versatile.

  4.  It not rigid but flexible in nature.

  5. A number of athletes can take part in this training simultaneously. 

  6. In this training method, no equipment is required. Hence, it can be organised without any problem.

  7.  It is easily adaptable to the athlete.


  1.  It is difficult to see how hard the trainee is making efforts.

  2.  Sometimes the athlete is likely to drop efforts .

  3. It may cause accidents because it is not  pre-planned.

  4. Appropriate check on trainees can not be maintained .


Speed is the ability to move from one place to another in the shortest possible time.It means that the velocity with which an individual can execute his movements. In other words, it means the capacity of moving a body part or the whole body ample, the movement with maximum speed or velocity.For example, the movement of smasher's arm in volleyball has the maximum speed or velocity at the time of smashing the volleyball.

Types of Speed in different sports

The main forms in which Speed appears in different f appears are stated below

  • Reaction Ability- Reaction Ability depends completely on coordinative processes.So it is also considered as a coordinative ability.Reaction Ability is the   ability to react effectively and quickly to any signal or action. In games and sports, signals can be of various types such as visual or tactile.In games and sports , reaction ability is not only significant to react quickly to a signal but the reaction should also be accurate according to the situation.Reaction ability can beClassified into two types: (a) Simple Reaction Ability- It is the ability  to react quickly in already determined a manner to a known signal. For example, the reaction of sprint races is already known to the racer.
    (b) Complex Reaction Ability- it is the ability to react quickly to undermined or unexpected signals, These are unexpected to read person because he does not know when and to which signals has to react such as facing a ball cricket by a batsman station.

  • Acceleration Ability-It is the ability to achieve maximum speed from a stable position or from the low-speed state. Generally, runners achieve their maximum after approximately six seconds. This ability mainly depends on upon explosive strength,  technique, and flexibility. This ability is important in all games and sports in which maximum speeds are to be achieved in quickly such as sprint races(short distance), hockey, football, and gymnastics etc.

  • Movement speed- It is the ability to do a movement in minimum time.It depends on upon technique, explosive strength, flexibility and coordinative in swimming and vital role in boxing, wrestling, throws, jumps, gymnastics turns in swimming and in the movement sprinting starts. It can be measured by the time taken to complete the movement.

  • Locomotor Ability- It is the ability to maintain maximum speed for maximum time or distance . This ability is very significant in only a few sports events such as 100m distance, 200m, 400m races, short sprints in track cycling, speed skating, swimming, football etc 

  • Speed Endurance-Speed endurance is the ability to perform movements speed under conditions of fatigue, Speed endurance is a very complicated ability which depends on upon explosive strength, speed, and endurance. It also depends on upon technique, local muscular endurance and lactic acid tolerance ability.

Methods to develop speed

In developing speed genetic factors may work sometimes but most of the share is occupied by the amount of hard work done by an athlete.Following are the ways to develop speed:

  1. Acceleration Runs

The acceleration run is introduced to develop speed , especially in attaining maximum speed from a stable position.Before starting acceleration run , the proper technique should be learnt properly to reduce the chances of injuries.In acceleration run, an athlete is required to run a specific distance in minimum possible time.This is to be repeated again and again in the presence of proper rest intervals between the runs.the maximum speed of runners is achieved within 6 seconds.After developing speed , good athletes can maintain speed for only 20 metres.

2. Pace Runs or Races

Pace runs or races include running the whole distance of the race at a constant speed.Generally, the chosen distance is 800 metres.Observations showed that an  athlete can run  up to 300metres for full speed so he requires conserving speed to cover the whole distance of 800 metres.For example,  if the best record of an athlete of running 800 metres is 1 minute 40 seconds ,then he should focus on covering first 400 metres for 50 seconds then another 400 metres for 50 seconds. This would help him decreasing  time and increases speed.For pace run , the athlete should run for maximum steady speed for 110%-120% of the distance .Proper tests should be taken before starting next repetition.In other words, this race includes keeping the sufficient energy for the second half of the race and not spending over the first half.


Flexibility is the range of movements of a joint.In ordinary words, it is the ability of the body to bend , twist etc.Flexibility helps to do day to day activities efficiently.It is determined by genetic factors and the amount of workout one do.Developing the flexibility helps to reduce injuries, develops postures, reduce low back pains etc.

Flexibility can be classified into two types:

  • Active Flexibility

  • Passive Flexibility

Active Flexibility 

The  flexibility movements performed without any outside help goes under this category.This is the easiest type of flexibility and can be seen in real life in the form of hamstring stretch,butterfly groin stretch ,shoulder stretch, triceps stretch,calf stretch etc.Active Flexibility is also into two types:

  • Static Flexibility - Performing an exercise  to increase the flexibility comes under the category of static flexibility.For example shoulder stretch, triceps stretch,calf stretch etc.Static flexibility is the flexibility possessed by a person in a stable position.

  • Dynamic Flexibility-The flexibility possessed by a moving body is dynamic flexibility.This is an essential part of some games or sports.For example gymnastics.

Passive Flexibility

The flexibility movements performed with the use of external help is passive flexibility.for example stretching exercises with the help of a partner.

Improving Flexibility

 Coordinative Abilities

The name coordinative abilities say it all.Coordination abilities refer to the ability of an individual to maintain the coordination between different body parts.The coordination can be in the form of muscle to muscle , brain to muscle etc.

Types of coordinative abilities

There are different types of coordinative abilities which are significant in different sports.The various types of coordinative abilities are:

Orientation Ability-The coordinative ability of an individual to determine body position and its parts to react upon a moving body.It depends on sensory organs.Its application can be seen in games such as basketball, football, volleyball, table tennis etc in which the balls are moving bodies.

Coupling Abilities-The coordinative ability of individual to use different body parts to react in sports or games is known as coupling abilities.It  can be seen in boxing , wrestling etc.

Reaction Ability-The coordinative ability of individual to react quickly to a signal. The signal can be in the form of light , sound etc.Reaction ability is further described into simple reaction ability and complex reaction ability.

  • Simple reaction ability-The ability to react according to a previously known signal in a defined way is known as simple reaction ability.For example reaction of a runner in a race .

  • Complex reaction ability-The ability of a person to react quickly to an unknown signal .Both reaction and signal are not defined.For example ball in football, ball in basketball, ball in cricket etc.

Balance Ability-The ability of individual to maintain or regain balance quickly in the body during and/or after the movement is known as balance ability.For example handstand on parallel bars, water skiing, performing on the balance beam.

Rythm Ability- Rhythm ability is the ability to observe or perceive of a movement and to do the movement with the required rhythm. In gymnastics or figure skating,  the sportsman has to observe an external rhythm,  given in the form of music and to express his movements. Rhythm ability is also required in synchronised swimming.In various sports, it is not given from outside,  The sportsperson uses the rhythm which is already stored in his motor memory. This type of ability is very significant in gymnastics,  synchronised swimming,  diving and figure skating etc.

 Adaptation Ability- Adaptation ability is the ability to adjust or change effectively on the basis of changes or anticipated changes in the situation The change situation can be expected one or can be sudden or unexpected one in other words,  it can be said that it is the ability to solve motor task,  effectively in spite of changed or changing situation.

Differentiation Ability- Differentiation ability the ability to achieve a high degree accuracy and economy of separate body movements and movement phases in a motor action.  The high level of this ability depends on movement experience and the degree of mastery over motor action.


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