A blog to meet demands of Sample Papers, Syllabus, Last Year Papers of Class 12 Physical Education.

Planning in Sports

17:03:00 Posted by Saurabh Sahni 8 comments




Blog title of planning physical education class 12
Planning in Sports 

  •  Meaning & Objectives of Planning 
  •  Various Committees & Its Responsibilities 
  •  Tournament – Knock-Out, League or Round Robin & Combination 
  •  Procedure to Draw Fixtures – Knock-Out (Bye & Seeding) & League (Staircase & Cyclic) 
  •  Intramural & Extramural – Meaning, Objectives & Its Significance 
  •  Specific Sports Programme (Sports Day, Health Run, Run For Fun, Run For Specific Cause & Run For Unity) 

1 Planning 


A basic management function involving the making of one or more  plans to achieve  needs or demands with the available resources.
In simple words, it means deciding in advance what is to be done, when is to be done,how it is to be done and by whom it is to be done. ("it" refers to the task or goal or target or demand or need)

1.1 Objectives of planning


1. To reduce the unnecessary pressure of immediacy.

2. To keep good control over all the activities.

3. To facilitate proper coordination.

4. To reduce the chances of mistakes.

5. To increase the efficiency.

6. To increase the creativity.

7. To enhance the performance.

2 Tournament


A series of contests between a number of competitors, competing for a prize.In other words, it means competition between many teams.It is classified into 4 types:

  1. Knock-Out Tournament

  2. League (or Round Robin)

  3. Combination (Include all Combinations of above two Tournaments)

  4. Challenge Tournament (Out Of Syllabus)

Let's Know About Them

2.1 Knock-Out Tournament


This is the most common type of tournament in which teams play against each other, winner moves to next round whereas loser is eliminated from the tournament.Knock-out tournaments are the best tournament when spectators or resources are less.

In Knock-out tournament,teams are made to compete with each other unless a single winner is decided.
Single elimination or knockout tournament



2.1.1 Advantages


  • Cheap to organise-As we know that number of teams keeps on decreasing  with the increase in rounds,so these tournaments are cheaper or economical to organise.

  • Raising standards-Knockout tournament works on the principle of either win or gets eliminated and  there is no second chance to  any team. So teams tend to give their best to win the tournament.

  • Time saving-Due to less number of matches , knockout tournament require less time to complete.

  • Less officials-Owing to less number of matches , the officials required for the matches will also be less.

2.1.2 Disadvantages


  • Good teams may be eliminated at beginning-It could be possible that due to some reasons good teams also get eliminated in an earlier round.

  • Lose of interest-Due to the elimination of good teams in initial rounds,spectators tend to lose interest in remaining rounds.

3 League tournament


Also Known As Round Robin Tournament.In this type of tournament, All teams are made to compete with each other  for once (if it is single league tournament) or twice (if it is double league tournament).This tournament is often seen as producing the most reliable rankings. However, for large numbers of competitors, it may require an unfeasibly large number of rounds.

3.1 Types of league tournament

3.1.1 Single League tournament - League Tournament in which each team plays with all other teams for once are known as single league tournament

Number of rounds in single league tournament can be calculated by the following formula

N(N-1)/2  where N represents number of teams

3.1.2 Double League Tournament- League Tournament in which each team plays with all other teams twice are known as double league tournament

Number of  rounds in double league tournament can be calculated by the following formula

N(N-1)    where N represents a number of teams.

4 Combination Tournaments


In combination tournaments , the number of teams are divided into four equal zones. all of them are made to compete accordingly  (depends on the type of combination).After the competition winner from each zone is picked up and made to compete with other winners of different zones.

Types of combination tournament :
Combination tournaments are classified into following four types:



  1. Knockout Cum Knockout

  2. League Cum League

  3. Knockout Cum League

  4. League Cum Knockout

4.1 Knock-Out Cum Knockout

In Knock-Out Cum Knockout tournaments the number of teams are divided into four groups which are later on made to compete with each other on the knockout basis.Since this is knockout cum knockout tournament , the winners of the previous four groups are made to compete with each other on knock out basis . This will declare one team as a winner .

4.2 League Cum League

In League Cum League tournaments number of teams are divided into four groups which are later on made to compete with each other on the league basis.Being a league cum league , all the winners of four teams are made to compete on the league basis.This will declare one team as a winner .

4.3 Knockout Cum League

In Knockout cum league tournaments , divide number of teams into four groups,then they are made to compete with each other on the basis of the knockout tournament , the winners from the four groups are made to  compete on the basis of league tournament This will declare one team as a winner .

4.4 League Cum Knockout

In League Cum Knockout ,Divide number of teams into four groups,then they are made to compete with each other on the basis of League tournament,the winners form the four groups are made to  compete on the basis of the knockout tournament.This will declare one team as a winner .

5 Fixtures


Setting up fixtures means ,making arrangements of competition among teams. it includes deciding who will fight with whom,which teams will be competing in the first round and other rounds .It is primarily drawn for Knockout tournament,and league tournament(staircase method and cyclic method).

5.1 knockout tournament fixture

happy new year 2018


Seeding-The sorting of teams and fitting them in the fixture so that the stronger teams do not meet each other in the early rounds is known as seeding. The criteria for sorting the teams is their performance.The reason why seeding is used in tournaments is that if stronger teams lose the matches in initial rounds ,then there would be no interest left in the matches for spectators and since spectators are the main source of funding ,seeding is done.

A bye is a special privilege given to a team in the initial rounds because of which it gets exempted from playing in the first round and directly enters the second round. In knock-out (single-elimination) tournaments, if the number of participants is not a power of two (e.g. 16 or 32), byes are given to complete the fixture which automatically moves certain participants into a later round without requiring them to compete in an earlier one.

Byes to be given are calculated by subtracting the number of teams and a power of two (same or greater than a number of teams).Let's see some examples to understand it better.
Number of teams are 2 then byes will be

Power of two greater than number of teams-Number of teams  = number of byes

2-2 = 0

Number of teams are 3 then byes will be

Power of two greater than number of teams-Number of teams  = number of byes

4 - 3 = 1

Number of teams are 12 then byes will be

Power of two greater than number of teams-Number of teams  = number of byes

16-12=4 byes


After calculating a number of byes,we will see how to make a knockout fixture.

  1. Entering teams before doing anything- all the teams are arranged in a serial wise manner starting from lowest to highest.

  2. Dividing -the number of teams is divided into two zones.If the number of teams is an even number , then they are to be divided equally, otherwise, they are calculated by the following formula.

For the upper half    (N+1)/2

For the lower half    (N-1)/2

N represents number of teams

In case when there are odd number of teams , upper half gets an advantage of one more team.


3.  Calculation of byes- it will be calculated on the process stated above.

4.Fixing the byes-The number of byes are fixed or allotted (to respective teams)  in a pre-defined pattern.

Let's say a number of teams are 12 and the accordingly number of byes are 16-12=4.then these byes will be allotted in the following manner.

  • First Bye will be given to the last team of the second half zone or the end of the whole fixture.

  • The second bye is given to the first team of the first half or the first team of the whole fixture.

  • The third bye is given to the first team of the lower half zone.&

  • The fourth bye is given to the last team of the upper half.

If u do it correctly it will end up something like this




As byes are given to some teams , they are made to compete in the second round and they don't have to do anything in the first round.

After this, the remaining teams are made to compete with each other.

5. competition - After allotting byes , the remaining teams will compete to get a chance in the second round.A square brackets type pattern is made which helps the viewer to see the competition among teams , outside the pattern made , it is written that which team won, and it goes on until one winner is left.It looks like this
making arrangements of teams in knockout fixture



Note: the numbers outside the square like patterns represent the winner teams , and they can differ . There is no predefined pattern or theory which can tell you its pattern because it is always dependent upon the hard work of teams , it is always random.

5.2 League Tournament Fixtures


The following methods are used for drawing fixtures in league tournaments:

  1. Cyclic Method

  2. Staircase Method

  3. Tabular Method(Out of Syllabus )

5.2.1 Cyclic Method league tournament fixture

In Cyclic Method league tournament  one team will be fixed in a particular position and all other teams will move in a particular direction.

If a number of teams are odd , then one bye will be kept in the match and its place will be fixed in the first position of the right side of the fixture.A number of matches played will be equal to the number of teams.This is so because the bye is also counted as a team .

Number of matches = Number of teams (Only When number of teams are odd)

If the number of teams is even , then team number 1 will be fixed in the first position ,right side and all other teams will go on changing their places.

Number of matches = Number of teams - 1(only when number of teams are even)

Let's see some examples:

When number of teams are 5
cyclic method of making knockout fixture

cyclic method of making fixture in knockout tournament



After the 5th round, it stopped because in next round team 1 will replace the team 2 in the 5th round and this will look same as round 1.

When number of teams are 6
cyclic method when teams are 6


5.2.3 Staircase Method of league tournament fixture

In Staircase Method of the league tournament  ,fixtures are made just like a staircase.this method is the easiest method because no bye is given to any team and there is no problem of the even number of teams or an odd number of teams.

It includes fixing matches of one team with all other teams and the winner is decided on the basis of points .


staircase method of making knockout fixture

6 Intramural and Extramural


Intramural Sports are those recreational sports which are played within a particular  school/college/institute.These sports are meant to motivate the students and developing their various skills such as leadership,coordination etc.It is one of the best ways to motivate the students of the institution who are interested in games and sports.



6.1.1 Objectives of intramural


  1. To provide recreation.

  2. To develop cooperation among children.

  3. To provide the opportunity to children to do participate in sports.

  4. To find out the talented sports person.

  5. Develop leadership.

  6. Development of personality.

  7. Enables students to learn sports skills.

6.1.2 Advantages/Significance of intramural


  1. These activities are necessary to low down the fighting instinct of students.

  2. Intramural activities refresh the children and make them agile.

  3. These are helpful in physical ,mental,social,emotional development of children.

  4. It lays stress on moral and ethical values of students.

  5. Provide a good source of recreation.

  6. Develops awareness for health among children.

  7. Provides good opportunities to students to participate in-game sand sports.

  8. help to develop leadership qualities in students.

  9. The talent search is possible through intramural.

  10. It serves as a great source to develop interpersonal relations.

  11. Helpful in developing a personality.



6.2 Extramural Sports are those recreational sports which ar played between different players/teams of different school/institution or an organisation.

6.2.1 Significance of extramural sports

  1. These competitions provide an opportunity to schools and teams to show their sports capabilities which enhance the image of the school.

  2. These programs are essential for making and implementing the program of physical education more efficiently and effectively.

  3. it provides the opportunity to take part in the competition for other  students also  who are not a part of organisation or school.

  4. these activities are essential to provide appropriate knowledge of new techniques of sports.

  5. the standard of sports can be enhanced by such activities.

6.2.2 Objectives of extramural 

  1. To provide the experience of sports competition to students.

  2. To check improvement in performance.

  3. Psychological development.

  4. To have a sense of competition.

7 Specific Sports Programs


Specific sports programs are arranged recently to draw public attention to social issues.These events are arranged with specific objective by the federation state government,NGO etc, to keep awareness among people about their health.Sometimes arrangement of these sports leads to very specific causes like AIDS,saving tigers,swine flu,cancer awareness etc.

7.1 Sports day


Sports day is a day which is meant to organise various competition among various houses(see house system).The sole reason for conducting sports day is to develop awareness among children about health.Sports days is a chain of sports games that are playing on various teams or houses.The duration of such games is only one day.These games are proved beneficial in reducing stress,tension,depression etc.The skills developed  through programs are honesty,leadership,brotherhood,coordination etc.

7.2 Health Run


These runs are introduced to increase awareness among people about health.There is no participation restrictions , no competition and a fixed distance to run.Also , prior registrations are required.The common types of health runs are marathons.

7.3 Run for fun


These runs are introduced to aware people about health and fitness.It motivates people to stay healthy and staying fit.Enjoyment in such runs is always available in abundance.

7.4 Run for specific cause


These runs are organised for noble causes such as increasing awareness about various diseases like aids or cancer or sometimes health also.It also includes raising funds.These are generally organised by NGOs.

7.5 Run for unity


These runs are organised for specific purposes with the specific purpose of bringing peace,unity and solidarity among people of country or world.These runs are organised to include people of all religions to remove social and economical barriers so that all can come together and run for the solidarity of the nation. the main aim of these runs is to develop brotherhood , unity among people.These runs sometimes are conducted to raise funds for charitable trust organisations.
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